Big Words Glossary

First Occupants:

  • Amulet: Small animal statue carried by aboriginal hunters.
  • Dwelling: The building in which people live, house, wigwams, longhome.
  • Shaman: Aboriginal spiritual leaders.
  • Patrilineal: Culture is passed on through the father.
  • Matrilineal: Culture passed on through the mother.
  • Absolutism: The king has ultimate power, given to him by god. This includes the church.
  • Animism: Aboriginal spiritual belief. Everything in nature has a spirit/soul, therefore it is treated with respect.
  • Bering Strait: Geographical area where the land bridge was located. Migration route of first occupants of North America.
  • Demographic: Population numbers.
  • Evangelize: Convert to another religion.
  • Linguistic: Language group.

New France:

  • Seigneurial System: How land was divided in New France along the St. Lawrence. It was also divided this way in France.
  • Canadien: A French person with a unique identity that emerged in New France.
  • Colonial Authorities: The people in charge in the colony who represented the King (governor & intendant).
  • Marriageable: Old enough to be married.
  • Administration: Either the running of the colony, or the people in charge of running the colony.
  • Interest Group: Any group that has demands from the people in charge (King/Government), for example: The Church, Aboriginals.
  • Economic Diversification: Making sure that your economy produces a number of different products in case demand changes (brewery, textile).

British Rule:

  • Preferential Tariffs: Taxes on the goods of other countries not under the control of the mother country. Makes some goods cheaper and more appealing than others.
  • Jurisdiction: The official power to make legal decisions and judgements (municipal, federal, provincial)
  • Protectionism: Using preferential tariffs to encourage people to buy goods from the mother country. 
  • Cause: Why an event happened. Includes: immediate/long-term/underlying causes.
  • Consequence: The result of an event. Please note, these can be either negative or positive. 
  • Continuity: something that exists between two time periods, or periods of time. For example, The Fur Trade.
  • Anticlericalism: Opposition to the Church and its influence in political and social affairs.
  • Responsible Government: A government that listens to its people and is able to make changes to laws, etc. impacting its territory.
  • Ultramontanism: The Church should have, or has, a strong influence in politics and social affairs.
  • Reformers: Members of the Party Patriote (Canadien and Irish) who distrusted England and wanted changes in the colony.
  • Famine: An extended period with little to no food.
  • Migration: The movement of people within a territory, or to a new territory (immigration/emigration).
  • Legislative Assembly: The lower house of Quebec's legislature where elected officials made governing decisions about the colony.
  • Liberalism: Liberalism is the philosophy founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
  • Dispersal: Distributing things or people over a given area.
  • Embargo: An official ban on trade, etc. with a particular country (ies).

Contemporary Period:

  • Dust Bowl: A period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion caused the phenomenon.
  • Baby Boom: A period of time, for us it is 1955-1965, with an unusually high number of births. 
  • Industrial Development: The planning and building of new industries in special areas, e.g., St. Lawrence Seaway, Hwy. 1.
  • Tertiary Sector: The segment of the economy that provides services to its consumers; this includes a wide range of businesses such as financial institutions, schools and restaurants.
  • Cooperatism: The sociopolitical organization of a society by major interest groups, or corporate groups, such as agricultural, business, ethnic, labour, military, patronage, or scientific affiliations, on the basis of common interests. For example, Dairy Farmers, Desjardins Bank. 
  • Nationalized: The transfer (a major branch of industry or commerce) from private to state ownership or control. For example, Hydro Quebec.
  • Municipal: City government, decisions such as water, garbage disposal and libraries made at this level. 
  • Provincial: Government of the province, decisions such as health care, education, social services and highways made at this level.
  • Federal: The highest level of government, governs the country. Military, collections of taxes, and foreign relations and trade.
  • Autonomy: The right to self-government in certain areas. Quebec has fought hard for this in the areas of culture and language. 
  • Activists: A person who fights for social change, such as environmental protections or anti-poverty measures.
  • Neoliberalism: Policy model transfers control of economic factors to the private sector from government. Calls for loosen restrictions on trade, etc.
  • Immigration Act: The rules and regulations that determine who is allowed to enter a country and under what conditions. 
  • Constitution: A set of principles or laws according to which a state or other organizations are governed. 
  • FLQ: Was a militaristic separatist group in Quebec. Founded in the early 1960s. It conducted a number of attacks between 1963 and 1970
  • Secularism: The separation of church and state. 
  • Environmentalism: An ideology (way of thinking) regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment.
  • Aboriginalism: The recognition of the rights of, and the promotion of, Aboriginal groups.
  • Government Intervention: Regulatory actions taken by a government in order to affect or interfere with decisions made by individuals, groups, or organizations regarding social and economic matters, for example: unemployment insurance.
  • Globalization:  The interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. Includes the economy, culture, and information.




  • Confederation: The process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were joined into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
  • Division of Labour: The different parts of a manufacturing process given to different people in order to improve efficiency.
  • Urbanization: The movement of people from farms to cities. The growth of cities.
  • Capitalism: An economic in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit. Maximizes profit by minimizing expenses.
  • Feminism: Seeking women's rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.
  • Mechanization: The increase in the use of machines to make goods traditionally done by hand.
  • Trench Warfare: Land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting of soldiers protected in trenches.
  • Unionization: Organizing a union in an effort to increase worker rights.
  • Means of Production: Non-human items used to make goods, machines/tools, etc.
  • Asbestos: A naturally occurring fibre used in building materials. Popular for being very heat resistant. Very dangerous when inhaled. 
  • Nazism: Political beliefs associated with the Nazi party. Focus on the superiority of one race over another. 
  • Suffrage: The right to vote, 
  • Americanism: A custom, trait, or thing peculiar to the United States of America. The influence of American culture. 
  • Wall Street Crash: An aggressive decline in the stock market that signalled the start of the Great Depression. 
  • Agriculturalism: The focus on farming and a more traditional way of life - Quebec.
  • Fascism: An aggressive authoritarian rule, intolerant of multiple views and heavily controlled by the military and police. 
  • Industrialization: The process by which an economy is transformed from agricultural to manufacturing of goods. Labor is often replaced by mechanized mass production, and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines.
  • Suburbanization: A population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in formation of urban sprawl.
  • Working Class: The social group consisting of people who are employed for wages, especially in manual or industrial work.
  • Great Depression: The period during the 1930s with high employment. It was the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world.
  • Quebec Nationalism: Promotes the idea that the Québécois people are an independent nation, separate from the rest of Canada, and promotes the unity of the Québécois people in the province of Quebec.
  • Consumerism: Social and economic idea that encourages the buying of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
  • Crown Corporation: A company owned and operated by the government, e.g., Hydro Quebec.
  • 2nd Wave of Feminism: This wave of feminism in the1960s and '70s focused on dismantling workplace inequality, such as denial of access to better jobs and salary inequity, via anti-discrimination laws.
  • National Policy: A Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonald's Conservative Party in 1876 and put into action in 1879. It called for high tariffs on imported manufactured items to protect the manufacturing industry and promote the Canadian economy.


  • because
  • this led to...
  • accordingly
  • furthermore
  • as a result of
  • due to
  • for the (simple) reason that
  • being that
  • for
  • in view of (the fact)
  • inasmuch as
  •  seeing that
  • as
  • owing to (the fact)


  • as a result (of this)
  • consequently
  • hence
  • for this reason
  • thus
  • because (of this)
  • in consequence
  • so that
  • accordingly 
  • as a consequence
  • so much (so) that
  • so
  • therefore

Cornell Notes with Student Example

Bibliography & Citations

In-Text Citations (OWL Purdue Style Guide)

Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).

Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).


Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).

Does not look like this:

It looks like this:
Devitt, Terry. "Lightning injures four at music festival." The Why? Files. 2 Aug. 2001. 23 Jan. 2002 <>.